Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes [Robert A. Meyers] on fisdupartmerworl.ml Meyer's book is useless to anyone new to oil refining but may be useful in the. Great book for initial overview of petroleum refining and how the plant works. There are some sections that are a little more technical in terms of chemistry, but . The book covers important topics, such as clean fuels, gasification, biofuels, and environmental impact of refining, which are not.
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A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress .. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining provides a thorough and balanced intro-. the reader an overview of the entire oil and gas industry, while still preserving enough have restructured the book into Upstream, Midstream, Refining and. A comprehensive review of the theory and practice of the simulation and optimization of the petroleum refining processes. Petroleum Refinery.
Many other methods which are relatively cheap and easy to operate are characterized by strict technical limitations, in terms of operating conditions and effluent hydraulic rates e. Fenton and membrane applications , low efficiencies and excessive sludge generation e. On the other hand, some applications are limited by the hazards associated with them like in ozone utilization, being an unstable gas [ 2 ]. Others are difficult to be commercialized for real-time RWW treatment, and large-scale industrial applications seem to be lacking.
In view of the above discussion, it is essential to search for more viable alternatives that can be utilized in novel biological treatment systems. As for the several mixed processes that have been proposed recently, a lot of these treatment schemes not only have noticeable advantages but also have important drawbacks.
These problems can be sorted in two main areas: the first relates to all economic aspects including the high cost needed for the implementation of these techniques; the second includes all technical issues related to the resources needed for the transformation from very toxic compounds to environmentally compatible ones [ 22 ].
Why is biodegradation favorable?
Biodegradation is the decomposition of organic substances by microorganisms into metabolic by-products with lower toxicity. Enzymes play a catalytic role in this process, where a chemical is converted stepwise into end products through various intermediates.
This transformation is called mineralization [ 25 ]. Biodegradation is a cost effective and environmentally compatible option that is often preferred, thanks to the possibility of complete mineralization [ 26 , 27 ]. Because of the aromatic structure of many organic compounds e. However, several microorganisms have the capability to utilize these compounds for their metabolic activities as carbon and energy sources.
Biological transformation has been recognized as one of the key solutions to deal with environmental pollution caused by many problematic organic contaminants.
In this regard, the use of pure and mixed cultures of organisms is considered a favorable and most promising approach [ 28 ]. Many strains of bacteria, fungi and algae have the ability to degrade toxic organic substances.
Bacterial cultures of Pseudomonas genus are the most commonly utilized biomass for the biodegradation of organic contaminants, with special interest paid to Pseudomonas putida due to its high removal efficiency [ 29 ]. However, a main drawback in bioprocesses is the inhibition of the enzymatic activity at high substrate concentrations. Under certain conditions, organic material can be decomposed aerobically or anaerobically [ 30 ]. Conventionally, aerobic processes are preferred. Aerobic microorganisms grow faster and are more efficient because they can achieve complete mineralization of toxic organic substances to inorganic constituents CO2, H2O [ 31 ].
This is in addition to low associated costs [ 16 ]. On the other hand, the end products of biochemical reactions in anaerobic processes often produce esthetically displeasing colors and fouling odors in water [ 2 ].
Therefore, there is a limited interest in the utilization of anaerobic microorganism for the degradation of organic waste. However, there have been several studies in this regard [ 32 — 34 ].
Since most biological treatment studies have used aerobic biomasses, discussion in the following sections of this chapter will focus on aerobic biodegradation. Detailed reviews on the biodegradation of some organic compounds can be found in the literature [ 27 , 35 — 37 ]. Mechanisms of biodegradation Biodegradation is a multivariable process, which is affected by a combination of many biotic and abiotic factors, including pH, temperature, oxygen content and availability, microbial abundance and substrate concentration [ 26 , 27 ].
The chemical structure of aromatic compounds plays a key role as reflected by the number, type and position of substituents on the aromatic ring and degree of branching. The greater the number of substituents in the structure, the more toxic and less degradable it is.
Metabolic processes are dominated by the catalysis of enzymes, which are particular to each type of biomass and reaction. A metabolic reaction is ultimately a process of energy conversion. Little is known about the biodegradation mechanism by fungi and algae; so the following is a brief discussion of this mechanism by aerobic bacteria, as typically represented by the biodegradation of aromatics.
In aerobic biodegradation, enzymatic attack on the aromatic ring is initiated by oxygen. A typical pathway for metabolizing phenols phenol is a basic structural unit for a variety of synthetic organic compounds is to hydroxylate the ring by the enzyme phenol hydroxylase, form catechol and then open the ring through ortho- or meta-oxidation. Thus, phenol hydroxylase is the first enzyme and catechol is a basic intermediate in the degradation pathways of many aromatic substances.
In the ortho-pathway, the aromatic ring is cleaved by the enzyme catechol 1,2-dioxygenase C12O. In the meta-pathway, the ring is cleaved by the enzyme catechol 2,3-dioxygenase C23O. The ring is thus opened and then degraded [ 27 ]. C12O and C23O designate two different orientations as to how the ring cleavage can occur. However, the biodegradation of many aromatics proceeds through the ortho-cleavage pathway after the formation of catechol because the meta-cleavage results in the formation of dead end metabolites from catechol; the enzyme gets inactivated by the accumulation of a toxic intermediate [ 38 ].
The text also provides a detailed introduction to refinery engineering topics, ranging from the basic principles and unit operations to overall refinery economics. The book covers important topics, such as clean fuels, gasification, biofuels, and environmental impact of refining, which are not commonly discussed in most refinery textbooks. Throughout the source, problem sets and examples are given to help the reader practice and apply the fundamental principles of refining. Chapters can be used as core materials for teaching undergraduate courses.
The first two chapters present an introduction to the petroleum refining industry and then focus on feedstocks and products. Thermophysical properties of crude oils and petroleum fractions, including processes of atmospheric and vacuum distillations, are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. Conversion processes, product blending, and alkylation are covered in chapters The remaining chapters discuss hydrogen production, clean fuel production, refining economics and safety, acid gas treatment and removal, and methods for environmental and effluent treatments.
This source can serve both professionals and students on undergraduate and graduate levels of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Chemistry, and Chemical Technology. Beginners in the engineering field, specifically in the oil and gas industry, may also find this book invaluable. Students in Chemical Engineering, practitioners in refineries, and consultants to the Oil and Gas industry. Preface 1. Introduction 1. Refining Processes 1. Physical Separation Processes 1.
Chemical Catalytic Conversion Processes 1.
Thermal Chemical Conversion Processes 1. Refinery Configuration 1. Type of Products 1. Environmental Regulation 1. Crude Assay and Quality 1.
Refinery-petrochemical Integration 1. Development of New Technology 2. Refinery Feedstocks and Products 2. Introduction 2. Composition of Crude Oils 2. Paraffins 2. Olefins 2.
Handbook of Petroleum Refining
Naphthenes cycloalkanes 2. Aromatics 2. Sulphur Compounds 2. Oxygen Compounds 2. Nitrogen Compounds 2. Metallic Compounds 2. Asphaltenes and Resins 2. Products Composition 2. Gasoline 2. Kerosene 2. Jet Fuel 2. Diesel Fuel 2. Fuel Oil 2. Residual Fuel Oil 2.
Lube Oil 2. Asphalt 2. Petroleum Coke 2. Physical Property Characterization Data 2. Fractionation 2. True Boiling Point Distillation 2. ASTM Distillation 2. Simulated Distillation by Gas Chromatography 2. API Gravity 2. Pour Point 2. Viscosity 2. Refractive Index 2. Freezing Point 2. Aniline Point 2. Flash Point 2.
Octane Number 2. Cetane Number 2.
Smoke Point 2. Reid Vapour Pressure 2. Water, Salt and Sediment 2. Molecular Weight 2.
Chemical Analysis Data 2. Elemental Analysis 2. Carbon Residue 2. Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis 2. Hydrocarbon Family Analysis 2. Aromatic Carbon Content 2. SARA Analysis 3.
Organic Contaminants in Refinery Wastewater: Characterization and Novel Approaches for Biotreatment
Introduction 3. Basic Input Data 3. Specific Gravity 3. Boiling Point Curves 3. ASTM Distillation 3. True Boiling Point Distillation 3. Pseudo-Components 3. Calculation of Pseudo-components Specific Gravities 3. Thermophysical Properties Calculation 3. Molecular Weight 3. Viscosity 3. Refractive Index 3.
Molecular Type Composition of Petroleum Fractions 3. Pseudo-critical Constants and Acentric Factors 3. Generalized Equation for Thermophysical Properties 3. Calculation of Enthalpy of Petroleum Fractions 3.
Estimation of Properties Related to Phase Changes 3.
Cubic Equations of State 3. Vapour—liquid Equilibrium 3. Crude Distillation 4.
Introduction 4. Process Description 4. Operation of Crude Distillation Units 4. Fractionation 4. Overflash 4. Column Pressure 4.
Overhead Temperature 4. Pre-flash Columns and Crude Column Capacity 4. Crude Oil Desalting 4. Types of Salts in Crude Oil 4. Desalting Process 4.
Description of Desalter 4. Desalter Operating Variables 4. Vacuum Distillation 4. Crude Distillation Material Balance 4.
Crude Assay Data 4. Material Balance 4. Sulphur Material Balance 4. Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization 5.
Introduction 5. Catalytic Reforming 5. Reformer Feed Characterization 5. Role of Reformer in the Refinery and Feed Preparation 5. Research Octane Number 5. Reforming Reactions 5. Thermodynamics of Reforming Reactions 5. Reaction Kinetics and Catalysts 5. Process Technology 5. Material Balance in Reforming 5. Process Simulation of Reformer by Equilibrium Reactions 5. Isomerization of Light Naphtha 5. Thermodynamics of Isomerization 5. Isomerization Reactions 5.
Isomerization Catalysts 5.
Petroleum Refining Design and Applications Handbook
Isomerization Yields Questions and Problems 6. Thermal Cracking and Coking 6. Introduction 6. Coke Formation 6. Thermodynamics of Coking of Light Hydrocarbons 6. Visbreaking 6. Feed Sources 6. Visbreaking Reactions 6. Visbreaking Severity 6. Kinetics of Visbreaking 6. Product Yield and Properties 6. Prediction of Visbreaking Yields 6. Process Description 6. Delayed Coking 6.
Role of Delayed Coker 6. Delayed Coking Variables 6. Types of Coke and their Properties 6. Coking and Decoking Operation 6. Delayed Coker Yield Prediction 6.
Process Simulation of Delayed Coking 6. Fluid Coking 6. Flexicoking 6.
chapter and author info
Yield Correlations for Flexicoking Questions and Problems 7. Hydroconversion 7. Introduction 7. Hydrotreating 7. Objectives of Hydrotreating 7. Role of Hydrotreating 7. Chemistry of Hydrotreating 7. Hydrotreating Catalysts 7.
Thermodynamics of Hydrotreating 7. Reaction Kinetics 7. Hydrotreating Processes 7. Make-up Hydrogen 7.
Operating Conditions 7. Hydrotreating Correlations 7. Hydrocracking 7. Role of Hydrocracking in the Refinery 7. Feeds and Products 7. Hydrocracking Chemistry 7.
Hydrocracking Catalysts 7. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Hydrocracking 7. Hydrocracking Processes 7. Process Configuration 7. Hydrocracking Severity 7. Catalytic Dewaxing 7. Hydrocracking Correlations 7. Simulation of Hydrocracking Units Question and Problems 8. Fluidised Catalytic Cracking 8.Professor Liu devoted his school breaks helping petrochemical industries in developing countries and chemical industries in Virginia with technology development and engineering training.
Estimation of Properties Related to Phase Changes 3. Products Composition 2.
Flash Point 2. Thus, phenol hydroxylase is the first enzyme and catechol is a basic intermediate in the degradation pathways of many aromatic substances.
Synthesis Gas Production Noise in Refinery Questions and Problems Bacterial cultures of Pseudomonas genus are the most commonly utilized biomass for the biodegradation of organic contaminants, with special interest paid to Pseudomonas putida due to its high removal efficiency [ 29 ].