A SUMMARY OF THE LIFE AND WORK. OF PRESIDENT HO-CHI-MINH. In the history of the nations, there are great men whose lives and works are closely. When Ho Chi Minh was born in , Vietnam was under French control. The. French had split what is known today as Vietnam into three separate states —. It is the most authoritative account of Ho's life we are likely to have for a long time to come." -- Washington Post Book World " fill[s] in the missing pieces of Ho's.
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PDF - Ho Chi Minh: A Life. It's difficult to think of someone more qualified to write this biography than Duiker (The Communist Road to Power in Vietnam), the. Duiker Download Pdf, Free Pdf Ho Chi Minh A Life William J Duiker Download. Last Update Date: Taiwan/hongkong/hochiminh Express--thx. Over manuals and Ebooks is the reason why customers keep coming fisdupartmerworl.ml you need a ho chi minh a life william j duiker, you can download them in pdf.
The sample size required for the study was estimated using a formula of estimating the mean [ 16 , 17 ]. Using a precision of one QOL score of either side instead of five QOL scores of either side like the previously unpublished study [ 18 ] to increase sample size, the required sample size was people. According to a requirement of the National Targeted Program for Management of Hypertension, hypertensive patients are managed and provided treatment at commune health stations.
As a pilot setting in screening for hypertension the number of hypertensive patients at Phuoc Loi is updated annually.
In January , a total of hypertensive patients were managed at Phuoc Loi commune health station. The list of patients at the commune health station was used as a sampling frame to select participants.
Eligible participants completed the structured questionnaire by face-to-face interview conducted by trained interviewers at their homes. The interviewers were trained and involved in pre-testing the Vietnamese version of questionnaire. The instrument can capture broadly and totally all aspects of QOL including physical health, psychological, social relationship and environment [ 15 ]. It contains two items from the Overall QOL and general Health and 24 items of Satisfaction with rating on a 5-point Likert scale [ 19 ].
The questionnaire was pretested among 25 local people to adjust wording before data collection. The study was explained to all participants and written informed consent was obtained prior to conducting the interviews.
Participants were informed that they had the right not to participate or withdraw from the study any time; and that any inability to participate would not disadvantage them in their treatment and care. The only conflicting results were reported from a study which found that change in visual acuity and disability glare but not contrast sensitivity were associated with change in VRQOL [ 11 ]. Stereopsis was not examined in this study. This instrument has been criticised for not addressing all the visual concerns of cataract patients [ 13 ], being highly focused on activities that require visual acuity [ 9 ] and having ceiling effects [ 8 , 9 ].
Methods Study design and sample A prospective cohort study using a before and after design was undertaken. Data collection Participants were recruited between July and July Before any data was collected, informed written consent was obtained from each participant.
Participation was voluntary and patients were informed they could withdraw from the study at any time without consequence. Data was collected at two time points at least a week before first eye cataract surgery and one to three months after either first eye surgery or both first and second eye surgery.
Information was collected using a researcher-administered questionnaire and three objective visual tests. All cataract surgeries were undertaken by phacoemulsification. Questionnaire Demographic data and information on current prescribed medications, refractive lenses worn, and co-morbid conditions were collected via a researcher-administered questionnaire.
This questionnaire has been previously validated for use with cataract patients [ 14 ]. The basis and design of this questionnaire have been described in full elsewhere [ 14 ].
Objective visual measures Three objective measures of vision were administered by the researcher according to hospital protocol. Participants wore their current corrective lenses for visual testing. While she was treated there, some Catholic nuns sometimes visited and prayed for her. Later on, she was taken her house because her health was deteriorating.
Her funeral was held by Buddhist monks and lay Buddhists at her home. However, an article which was written by a priest and posted on media stated that Mrs Phung was a Buddhist nun and chosen by God to be baptized. Nonetheless, conversion to Catholicism through marriage can be said to be as an effective way for Catholics to expand their community in Vietnam today.
Before the marriage, a man and a woman have to attend a marriage preparation class canon. With these regulations, non-Catholics have two choices. Firstly, they must be baptized, i. Secondly, if they do not convert, their children will have to be brought up in the Catholic tradition.
Both cases bring followers to Catholicism.
In , there were 31, converts because of marriage, making up one fifths of the new Catholics that year. In Buddhism, in contrast, conversion is not compulsory in interfaith marriage.
It is not necessary to exclude from each other. The condition for this marriage is that a man has to accept the tradition of his wife and vice versa.
A Buddhist should then study Catholicism and a Catholic should also study Buddhism. Both Buddhist and Catholic should go to church on Sunday and go to temple on the first and the fifteenth days of every lunar month. He also suggests that Buddhism and Catholicism should sign a common contract of mixed marriage. Buddhists argue that the issue of conversion, to a certain extent, has caused tension or conflict between the two communities.
Catholics have not agreed such an argument. Instead, Catholics insisted that politics was the cause of tension or conflict between the two religions before and that there have been no tension after that year. Converting to Catholicism has brought about some problems to Vietnamese society. On the pretext of protesting the conversion ban, the French invaded and colonized Vietnam for nearly years As a result, several Buddhists were arrested and killed.
Tension or conflict between the two religions has sometimes taken place because of the issue of politics and conversion. Under the support of the French colonists, Catholicism got favorable conditions for its expansion. The missionaries had not only supreme power in religious and cultural matters, but equally in social, economic and political ones.
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Some priests abused their position to order soldiers to destroy Buddhist temples and replace Buddhist images with the Cross or the Virgin Mary. Buddhists organized demonstrations in order to oppose the discriminatory policy and defend its communities.
Consequently, strife between lay Buddhists and Catholics sometimes took place. Several Catholic buildings were attacked by the Buddhists and the Catholics did the same to Buddhist buildings. It is believed that there were some debates between Catholicism and Buddhism before French rule.
However, its activity was not effective because the representatives of the involved religions did not meet the common purpose.
After , the relations between Buddhists and Catholics in Vietnam have been normal at least in the aspect of social exchange. This result is in part attributable to the state policy which stipulates that all religions are equal according to the law.
Leaders of Catholicism and Buddhism often pay a visit to each other on major celebrations of the two religions.
Ho Chi Minh
In recent years, the Catholic Church has been keen to learn about Buddhism in order to find similar points between the two religions, which evangelists can employ in comparing Buddhist teachings with the Bible and in spreading the gospel to people more effectively. As a result, various aspects of Buddhist studies are taught in major seminaries. Some catechists have been assigned to attend Buddhist courses at Buddhist temples.
In particular, a number of monks and nuns have even been invited to preach or share the Dharma to priests, Catholic nuns, catechists and the practitioners. Therefore, a real number of population exceeds the above statistics. In the census, it was reported that 1,, people registered their religious status, making up Buddhism had 1,, followers, accounting for Catholicism had , followers, accounting for Practically, many people having sympathy with Buddhism going to the temple for worship and prayer have not been counted to make the accurate statistics.
Buddhism was introduced to this region through three routes. The first was from the central Vietnam. It was spread by Vietnamese monks and lay people and Chinese people in the seventeenth century via the land route. The second was from China by Chinese monks and lay people in the seventeenth century via the sea route.
These Buddhists practiced Mahayana Buddhism. In the s, Vietnamese monks and lay people spread Theravada Buddhism from Cambodia to Vietnam via the land route. Catholicism was also introduced to Ho Chi Minh City from the seventeenth century to the twentieth century.
It was firstly introduced by Jesuit missionaries and their followers who came from central Vietnam in the seventeenth century. From to , a large number of Catholics came to the South and Saigon from the North after the Geneva Accord which temporarily ended the war in Vietnam and resulted in the partition of the country.
The long history of Buddhist-Catholic relations has seen a numerous attempts of conversion from the Catholic side and tensions arising from such attempts.
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This has influenced their relations, daily religious practice and attitudes towards conversion, and provides a useful example of how Buddhist-Catholic relations have unfolded in contemporary Vietnam. The survey is a qualitative one. It targeted two groups of informants.
The first group consists of Buddhist monks who were temple abbots or ordained monks of Buddhist temples and lay Buddhists who were living and working in Ho Chi Minh City.
The second group comprises Catholic priests who were serving at Catholic parish churches and lay Catholics in the same city. The Buddhist monks and Catholic priests were representatives of major temples and major churches in Ho Chi Minh City respectively. Lay Buddhists and lay Catholics were also chosen from these major temples and churches respectively.
The survey employed two methods in collecting data: interview and questionnaire. While the questionnaire was a means of seeking responses from lay Buddhists and Catholics, interviews were used to obtain information from clergies of both religions. Through interviews, extra information relevant to the topic was acquired. Responses were sought from Catholics and Buddhists living in a number of districts of Ho Chi Minh City involving those mentioned above. The survey was conducted for around 3 months from August to October The method of contact included writing, phone call, email, and contact in person.
All responses are found in the Appendix A and Appendix B. Buddhist side There were three responses provided by three Buddhist monks from three temples. The respondents had a university degree. One had a Ph. D degree and the remainder had a BA degree. They were temple abbots. Therefore, they could express completely their views. However, when contacted, they were reluctant to giving their views, on the grounds that they had little knowledge of these relations and were afraid of causing conflict with the other religion.
The respondents regarded Buddhist-Catholic relations as bad before , and normal or friendly after this year. Their responses reflected their concerns about the issue of conversion between the followers of the two religions.
The relations that respondents had with Catholics in Vietnam were limited. One of them sometimes had worked with Catholics in their research. Regarding tension between the two religions, the respondents argued that there was tension before , particularly in They agreed that the causes of tension included conversion, politics and the difference of point of views. They expressed their worries about conversion because it impacted the Buddhist community. Regarding lay Buddhists, there were a total of one hundred responses, provided by one hundred lay Buddhists belonging to the aforementioned temples.
Among them, thirty-one percent 31 respondents were male while sixty-nine percent 69 respondents female. The age of respondents was relatively old. There were forty percent 40 respondents over fifty years old, twelve percent 12 respondents from forty one to fifty, thirty-three percent 33 respondents from twenty-six to forty, and only fifteen percent 15 respondents from eighteen to twenty-five.
In terms of occupation, the majority of them were civil servant or housewife. They made up twenty-eight 28 respondents and twenty-six 26 respondents respectively. The remainders included nine percent 9 respondents worker manual laborer , nine percent 9 respondents student, ten percent 10 respondents teacher, five percent 5 respondents merchant and thirteen percent 13 respondents other jobs.
It was noted that fifty-two percent 52 respondents had their birthplace in other provinces while forty-eight percent 48 respondents in Ho Chi Minh City.According to journalist Bernard Fall , he decided to negotiate a truce after fighting the French for several years. Buddhists can marry Catholic partners and vice versa. Perhaps the most challenging part about reading this book is that Ho Chi Minh had many aliases throughout his life.
If conversion brings happiness to their life they should convert. In , there were 31, converts because of marriage, making up one fifths of the new Catholics that year. The scrupulous and the just, the noble, humane, and devoted natures; the unselfish and the intelligent may begin a movement--but it passes away from them.
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