Praise for Francis Fukuyama's. The End Of History and the Last Man. "Bold, lucid, scandalously brilliant. Until now the triumph of the West was merely a fact. The End of History? Francis Fukuyama. The National Interest. Summer IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the. The distant origins of the present volume lie in an article entitled “The End of History?” which I wrote for the journal The National Interest in the summer of
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Francis Fukuyama, “The End of History?” Printed in The National Interest ( Summer ). IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard. Fukuyama, Francis: The Future of the Soviet Role in Afghanistan: A Trip Report ( RAND note NRC, ) (PDF with commentary at fisdupartmerworl.ml); [Info]. In February, , Francis Fukuyama gave a talk on international relations at the University of Chicago. Fukuyama was thirty-six years old, and.
It was also the year after the collapse of the Soviet Union, which ended the global standoff between the two superpowers that had lasted since World War II. Fukuyama argues that the break-up of the Soviet Union in proves that liberal democracy and capitalism—an economic system that emphasizes the private ownership of goods—are the best political and economic systems, with the fewest flaws. He is not specific about the timeframe for this process. He also acknowledges that some countries face serious obstacles in changing how they operate.
Fukuyama draws heavily on the ideas of political philosophers of the past in order to build his vision of the future. This evolution of ideas means that good ideas survive and are, in turn, fine-tuned as people improve society by degrees.
Even contradictions, once discovered, lead to further tweaks until spiritual enlightenment is reached. Plato stated that humans, unlike other animals, require recognition and continually struggle to achieve it.
He outlines his rationale for supporting the Bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong.
In , Fukuyama published the book Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States, which resulted from research and a conference funded by Grupo Mayan to gain understanding on why Latin America, once far wealthier than North America, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries.
Discussing this book at a conference, Fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within Latin American nations is a key impediment to growth.
An unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth. Bush after the September 11, attacks that suggested the U.
By late , Fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the Iraq War  and called for Donald Rumsfeld 's resignation as Secretary of Defense. He believes that the Iraq War was being blundered.
From the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-Americanism in other countries Misjudging what was needed to bring peace in Iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to Iraq and the Middle East in general.
Fukuyama believes the US has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic Wilsonianism ", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. A latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. The US should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries.
The best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money.
The secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. One thing the US proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of World War II was the formation of international institutions.
A return to support for these structures would combine American power with international legitimacy.
But such measures require a lot of patience. This is the central thesis of his work America at the Crossroads. In a essay in The New York Times Magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with Leninism.
He wrote that neoconservatives:  believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. Leninism was a tragedy in its Bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the United States. Some argue[ who? However, many Fukuyama scholars claim this is a misreading of his work. Indeed, Fukuyama has stated: The End of History was never linked to a specifically American model of social or political organization.
The EU's attempt to transcend sovereignty and traditional power politics by establishing a transnational rule of law is much more in line with a "post-historical" world than the Americans' continuing belief in God , national sovereignty , and their military.
This theory has faced criticism , with arguments largely resting on conflicting definitions of "war" and "mature democracy". Part of the difficulty in assessing the theory is that democracy as a widespread global phenomenon emerged only very recently in human history, which makes generalizing about it difficult.
See also list of wars between democracies. Other major empirical evidence includes the elimination of interstate warfare in South America, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe among countries that moved from military dictatorships to liberal democracies. According to several studies, the end of the Cold War and the subsequent increase in the number of liberal democratic states were accompanied by a sudden and dramatic decline in total warfare , interstate wars, ethnic wars, revolutionary wars, and the number of refugees and displaced persons.
According to Derrida, Fukuyama—and the quick celebrity of his book—is but one symptom of the anxiety to ensure the "death of Marx". Fukuyama's celebration of liberal hegemony is criticized by Derrida: For it must be cried out, at a time when some have the audacity to neo-evangelize in the name of the ideal of a liberal democracy that has finally realized itself as the ideal of human history: never have violence, inequality, exclusion, famine , and thus economic oppression affected as many human beings in the history of the earth and of humanity.
It is consonant with the current discourse of the Pope on the European community: destined to become a Christian State or Super-State, this community would still belong therefore to some Holy Alliance. Derrida points out that Fukuyama himself sees the real United States and European Union as imperfect compared to the "ideals" of liberal democracy and the free market. Even the author understands that such ideals are not demonstrated by empirical evidence or ever could be demonstrated empirically.
They belong entirely to the realm of philosophy or religion, owing their birth to the Gospels of Philosophy of Hegel. And yet Fukuyama still uses a movement toward empirical observations, which he himself grants are imperfect and incomplete, to validate an idea that is purely idealistic and transcendent of any empirical reality or possibility.
Therefore, Marxists like Perry Anderson have been among Fukuyama's fiercest critics.The break-up of the Soviet Union left the United States as the last superpower standing, and seemingly the most dominant nation on the planet. Even the author understands that such ideals are not demonstrated by empirical evidence or ever could be demonstrated empirically.
An argument in favour of Fukuyama's thesis is the democratic peace theory , which argues that mature democracies rarely or never go to war with one another. Apart from pointing out that capitalist democracies are still riven with poverty, racial tension, and the like, Marxists also reject Fukuyama's reliance on Hegel.
Samantha Power, Chasing the Flame: Part of the difficulty in assessing the theory is that democracy as a widespread global phenomenon emerged only very recently in human history, which makes generalizing about it difficult.
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